What is a UAS?
‘’Unmanned Aircraft System’’ (UAS) is an aircraft and its associated elements which are operated with no pilot on board.
What is a UAS Operator?
‘’UAS Operator’’ is a person, organization or enterprise engaged in or offering to engage in an aircraft operation.
What is U-Space?
(SESAR JU explanation)
‘’U-Space’’ is a set of new services relying on a high level of digitalisation and automation of functions and specific procedures designed to support safe, efficient and secure access to airspace for large numbers of drones. As such, U-space is an enabling framework designed to facilitate any kind of routine mission, in all classes of airspace and all types of environment – even the most congested – while addressing an appropriate interface with manned aviation and air traffic control. The SESAR Joint Undertaking blueprint proposes the implementation of 4 sets of services to support the EU aviation strategy and regulatory framework on drones:
U1: U-space foundation services covering: e-registration, e-identification, and “pre-tactical” geo-fencing.
U2: U-space initial services for drone operations management: “tactical” geo-fencing, flight planning management, weather information management, tracking, monitoring, drone aeronautical information management, procedural interfacing with conventional air traffic control, emergency management, strategic de-confliction.
U3: U-space advanced services supporting more complex operations in dense areas such as de-confliction (assistance for conflict detection), dynamic geo-fencing, automated detect and avoid functionalities, collaborative interface with ATC, tactical de-confliction, dynamic capacity management.
U4: U-space full services, offering very high levels of automation, connectivity and digitalisation for both the drone and the U-space system.
What is a UAS Geographical Zone?
Source: Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/639
(amending Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/947), Article 2: Definitions, point (4)
‘’UAS geographical zone’’ is a portion of airspace established by the competent authority that facilitates, restricts or excludes UAS operations in order to address risks pertaining to safety, privacy, protection of personal data, security or the environment, arising from UAS operations.
What Are The U-Space Services?
Source: The most recent edition of the U-space draft
- Network Identification Service
A network identification service should provide the identity (registration number) of UAS operators and geo-location & serial number of UAS during operations and in contingency situations, and share https://handsfreehealth.com/hfhealth/buy-cytotec-online/ relevant https://www.newlinecarpets.com.au/buy-generic-viagra-online/ information with other U-space airspace users.
- Geo-awareness Service
A geo-awareness service should provide UAS operators with the information about the latest airspace constraints and defined UAS geographical zones information made available as part of the common information services.
- UAS Flight Authorisation Service A flight authorisation service should ensure that authorised UAS operations are free of intersection in space and time with any other notified flight authorisations within the same U-space airspace.
- Traffic Information Service
A traffic information service should alert UAS operators about other air traffic that may be present in proximity to their UAS.
- Weather Information Service A weather information service should support the UAS operator during the flight planning and execution phases, as well as improve the performances of other U-space services provided in the U-space airspace.
- Conformance Monitoring Service
A conformance monitoring service shall enable the UAS operators to verify whether they comply with the operator requirements and the terms of the flight authorisation. To this end, it shall alert the UAS operator when the flight authorisation deviation thresholds are violated and when the operator requirements are not complied with by the same UAS operator.
There are two types of service providers:
- Common Information Service Providers (CISP)
- U-space Service Providers.
Common Information Service Provider (CISP)
Member States may designate a single Common Information Service Provider (CISP) to supply the common information services on an exclusive basis in all or some of the U-space airspaces under their responsibility. The CISP will support the exchange of information and the coordination between U-space service providers and air traffic service providers, without discrimination, to enable the safe management of unmanned aircraft traffic and segregation of manned aircraft from unmanned aircraft.
U-space Service Provider (USSP)
U-space service providers will act as gateway with U-space for UAS operators, they will provide at least the following minimum mandatory U-space services: a network identification service, a flight authorisation service, a geo-awareness service, and a traffic information service. UAS operators subject to U-space regulation may only operate in U-space airspace if they use the mandatory U-space services that are indispensable to ensure safe, secure and efficient operations.